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Montgomery County was established by the State Convention in 1776, and from its establishment until 1948, the Montgomery County government functioned under the County Commission system. In 1948, the voters adopted a charter giving the County home rule and a council-manager form of government. In 1968, the voters approved a new charter providing for separate legislative and executive branches of government, with legislative power vested in an elected County Council and executive power in an elected County Executive. The new charter became effective with the election of the County Executive and Council in November 1970. Currently, the Montgomery County Council is composed of nine members, four of whom are elected by all voters in the County. The remaining five Councilmembers are each elected from one of five Councilmanic districts. Voters approved increasing the number of members on the County Council from 9 to 11 members during the 2020 general election, which will be effective December 5, 2022.

Montgomery County contains 491 square miles (or 317,000 acres) of land area. The County population was 1,062,061 as of April 2020, consisting of 42.9 percent White (non-Hispanic) and 57.1 percent cultural minorities. About 32.5 percent of the population is foreign-born.

The 2019 median household income was $108,820. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the County's estimated labor force for December 2021 was 537,164 with an unemployment rate of 3.6 percent. Montgomery County is an employment center with 61.5 percent of employment occupied by persons residing and working in the County. For the 2021 fall enrollment, 161,583 pupils were registered in the County's schools.